Main steps in high throughput study of proteins (proteomics)

Current research in proteomics requires first that proteins be resolved, sometimes on a massive scale. Protein separation can be performed using 2-D gel electrophoresis, which usually separates proteins first by isoelectric point and then by molecular weight.

Protein spots in a gel can be visualized using a variety of chemical stains or fluorescent markers. Proteins can often be quantified by the intensity of their stain using specified software. Once proteins are separated and quantified, they have to be identified.

Individual spots are cut out of the gel and cleaved into peptides with proteolytic enzymes. These peptides can then be identified by mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools.

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